If you were born outside Canada and later gained permanent resident status, you can apply for Canadian citizenship after three years of residency in Canada. You must also be at least 18 years of age, speak either English or French, and have some knowledge of Canada. You cannot apply if you have been convicted of a criminal offence in the last three years, are on parole, have been investigated for a war crime, or if your Canadian citizenship has been revoked in the past five years.
Except for those whose parents were diplomatic employees of another country, children born in Canada are automatically Canadian citizens. Children born in other countries to a Canadian parent have a right to citizenship. Since 1977, Canadians have been permitted to hold dual citizenship (that is, citizenship in another country).
The Minister of Citizenship and Immigration can order a passport suspension or revocation based on criteria established in the 1981 Canadian Passport Order. Conditions that could result in the loss of your passport, include: making false or misleading statements on your application; having your citizenship revoked; allowing someone else to use your passport; failing to pay child support; having been charged with an indictable offence; and using your passport to travel with the intention of committing an indictable offence.
Permanent residents may be deported if they committed a serious offence before they arrived in Canada, or if the government believes that they are a security risk. Permanent residents can also be deported if they lie on their immigration application, are convicted of a serious offence in Canada, or lose their status as permanent residents.